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Anal fissures

Violation of the integrity of the skin in the anal passage, in which muscle tissue is exposed, is called an anal fissure. This defect has a linear character and is accompanied by severe pain. It can be located on the back or front wall, sometimes on the side. In most cases, the length of the crack is no more than 2 cm, and the depth and width are no more than a few millimeters.


As a rule, a crack occurs after problems with the chair. 

It is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • painful sensations during and after defecation;

  • when feces move through the anal canal, it irritates the damage, resulting in pain during and after defecation;

  • an increase in the tone of the muscles of the anal passage provokes a spasm of the anal sphincter;

  • the appearance of bright red blood on the surface of feces and toilet paper, on underwear after going to the toilet.


Symptoms become more intense over a short period of time. Fear of pain when going to the toilet makes the patient avoid defecation. This, in turn, leads to constipation: the feces accumulated in the intestines become denser and harden, which turns into even stronger trauma and pain during defecation.


How does an anal fissure occur?


There are several factors that increase the risk of developing the disease:

  • pregnancy and childbirth;

  • traumatization of the walls of the anal passage due to constant constipation;

  • enema use;

  • anal sex;

  • violation of the integrity of the skin, if during the instrumental examination some actions were performed incompetently;

  • pathological defects of the vascular system;

  • excessive physical exertion.


If there is no timely treatment, an anal fissure in an acute form becomes chronic, and then it is even more difficult to cure it. Therefore, it is important to consult a proctologist in time at the first symptoms.

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